Reference - Glossary
An allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome and control the same characteristic.
A bovine containing a minimum of 93.75% Wagyu. It is usually the fourth cross between a pure Wagyu and F3. Wagyu content in an American Purebred Wagyu is in the range of 93.75 to 99.99%. The term is derived from grading up with other breeds and is a often used to differentiate it from "Fullblood" and "pure" Wagyu which are 100.0% Wagyu.
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome or does not determine the sex of the animal is an autosome.
Where dominance is complete, the heterozygote exhibits the same characteristics as the dominant homozygote (AA = Aa ≠ aa).
A bovine containing at least 50% Wagyu. It is commonly the first cross between pure Wagyu and any other cattle breed. A purebred (93.75% Wagyu or above) crossed with any other breed does not qualify as F1 in Australia. This definition was clarified by the AWA board in 2011.
A bovine containing at least 75% Wagyu. It is commonly the second cross between pure Wagyu and F1.
A bovine containing at least 87.5% Wagyu. It is commonly the third cross between pure Wagyu and F2.
A bovine with 100% Wagyu content.
The genetic make-up with reference to a single trait, a set of traits or an entire complex of traits in an animal or group of animals (AA, Aa, aa).
The number of times that each genotype appears within progeny or a population (1:2:1).
The heterozygote expresses itself in a different manner from either homozygote, and the genotypic and phenotypic ratios are the same (AA ≠ Aa ≠ aa, and both ratios are 1:2:1).
The observable characteristic or expression of the genotype is the phenotype (Horned or Polled).
The relative number of offspring expressing a particular trait is the phenotypic ratio (1:3).
A "pure" Wagyu is a descendant from Japanese Wagyu and contains 100% Wagyu. Fullblood Wagyu are "pure" Wagyu.
A bovine containing a minimum of 93.75% Wagyu. It is usually the fourth cross between a pure Wagyu and F3. Purebred Wagyu content is in the range of 93.75 to 99.99%. The term is derived from grading up with other breeds and is also referred to as "American Purebred" to avoid confusion with "Fullblood" and "pure" Wagyu which are 100% Wagyu bloodlines.
A gene that is expressed only when it is present in two copies, or when the other one is absent.
A chromosome that is involved in the determination of the sex as well as the development of sexual characteristics in an animal.
The Slice Shear Force test records the resistance of meat to shearing as a function of time as a quick measurement of texture.
Wagyu 和牛 literally means "Japanese cow" and comprise four breeds - Japanese Black/Black Wagyu, Japanese Brown/Red Wagyu/Akaushi, Shorthorn Wagyu and Poll Wagyu. Some of the best known Wagyu beef brands from Japanese Black from specific regions in Japan are Matsusaka, Kobe and Ōmi beef.
WB shear force:
The force to shear through a uniform piece of meat using a Warner-Bratzler analyzer gives a consistent measurement of texture. Sample steaks are cooked, cooled and then 6 core samples with a diameter of 12.7 mm are taken.